Readers ask: How many bonds can phosphorus have?

  • (Oct 10, 2021) Phosphorus can form 5 bonds like in the case of phosphate. While nitrogen is known to make a maximum of 4 bonds (3 covalent, 1 dative While nitrogen is known to make a maximum of 4 bonds (3 covalent, 1 dative

How can phosphorus have 5 bonds?

Simple answer: hybridization. Phosphorus only ‘needs’ three more electrons to get a full valence shell of eight, but you’ll notice that it actually has five valence electrons, so in theory all of these could bond . When bonding five times, the s-, p-, and d-orbitals actually fuse to create a hybrid dsp 3 orbital.

Can phosphorus have 6 bonds?

INTRODUCTION: Phosphorus can form bonds with many other elements. Also it can form bonds with varying number of atoms (Coordination Number), which can vary from 1 to 6 . Also it can have different valencies, either 3 or 5.

Can phosphorus form 3 bonds?

P has a 3s23p33d0 electron configuration so it can form 3 bonds with the 3 unpaired electrons.

How many bonds and lone pairs does phosphorus have?

The phosphorus atom has zero lone pairs, and uses all its five valence electrons to form bonds with the four oxygen atoms – 3 single bonds and 1 double bond. As you can see, the five bonds it forms give phosphorus a total of 10 electrons in its valence shell, which implies that it does not obey the octet rule.

Which elements can break the octet rule?

There are three violations to the octet rule: odd- electron molecules , electron -deficient molecules , and expanded valence shell molecules .

Why can nitrogen have 4 bonds?

If you look at the above image you can see that when nitrogen has a positive charge (one less electron), it can form four covalent bonds . Either with single, double, or triple bonds . It is similar to phosphorus in this regard because they both have five valence electrons ( four when they have a positive charge).

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Why does phosphorus have a valence of 5?

The valency of 5 is due to exitation of an electron from 3s orbitals to 3d orbital . This leads in formation of 5 sp3d hybrid orbitals and hence phosphorous shows a valency of 5 . It contains empty 3d orbitals so phosphorus can expand its octet by exciting on electron from 3s to 3d .

Does phosphorus follow octet rule?

Sulfur, phosphorus , silicon, and chlorine are common examples of elements that form an expanded octet . Phosphorus pentachloride (PCl5) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are examples of molecules that deviate from the octet rule by having more than 8 electrons around the central atom.

Why can Sulfur Form 6?

Sulfur has one more electron pair in its 3s subshell so it can undergo excitation one more time and place the electron in another empty 3d orbital. Now sulfur has 6 unpaired electrons which means it can form 6 covalent bonds to give a total of 12 electrons around its valence shell.

Can phosphorus have 4 bonds?

Because phosphorus does not form strong multiple bonds with itself, elemental phosphorus consists of tetrahedral P 4 molecules in which each atom forms single bonds with three neighboring atoms, as shown in the figure below.

Why can nitrogen only form 3 bonds?

Nitrogen has five valence electrons, so it needs three more valence electrons to complete its octet. A nitrogen atom can fill its octet by sharing three electrons with another nitrogen atom, forming three covalent bonds , a so-called triple bond . In fact, the triple bond in nitrogen is one of the strongest bonds known.

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What does phosphorus do to become stable?

Because of the relatively weak intermolecular attractions (van der Waals forces) between the separate P4 molecules, the solid melts easily at 44.1 °C (111.4 °F) and boils at about 280 °C (536 °F). This may prove to be the most stable form of phosphorus , despite the relative difficulty in its preparation.

Why Oxygen has 2 lone pairs?

An oxygen with a formal charge of 0 has 2 bonds and 2 lone pairs . One of these lone pairs can be used to bond with a hydrogen ion. This now means the oxygen has 3 bonds and 1 lone pair and a formal charge of +1.

Can carbons have lone pairs?

Carbon tends to form 4 bonds and have no lone pairs . Nitrogen tends to form three bonds and have on e lone pair . Oxygen tends to form two bonds and have two lone pairs .

Why nitrogen Cannot make 5 bonds?

Answer. The conventional answer is the “expanded octet because d-orbitals” explanation. The reason that phosphorus can form “ five bonds ” and nitrogen only three or four has to do with the size of the two atoms. Phosphorus can fit five fluorine atoms around itself; nitrogen cannot .

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